Data security refers to the process of protecting data from unauthorized access, theft, and corruption throughout its lifecycle.. This includes safeguarding data against hacking attempts, data breaches, natural decay (like bit rot), and exploitation. Data security involves both digital safeguards (like data encryption, firewalls, virus protection, etc.) and physical ones (like limiting access to computers, networks, and servers).
IBM provides a general guide to data security, including current approaches and trends: https://www.ibm.com/topics/data-security